Chapter 1: Verses 2 & 3


Verse 2

sañjaya uvāca

dṛṣṭvā tu pāṇḍavānīkaṁ vyūḍhaṁ duryodhanas tadā
ācāryam upasaṅgamya rājā vacanam abravīt
Declension Breakdown
dṛṣṭvā (Gerund: √pas) Having Seen
tu (expl.)
pāṇḍavānīkaṁ (GTP: pāṇḍavā + anikam Mas. Ac. Sing) The army of Pandavas
vyūḍhaṁ (Mas. Ac. Sing.) arrayed/assembled
duryodhana (Mas. Nom. Sing) Duryodhana
tadā (indec.) Thus/Then
ācāryam (Mas. Sing. Ac.) Teacher/Guru (In this case, Dronacharaya)
upasaṅgamya (Gerund upa+sam+gamya) having approached
rājā (Mas. Voc. Sing) The King
vacanam (Mas. Acc. Sing) Words
abravīt  (Imperf. 3rd. Sing. √bru: to Speak) Spoke 
Spoke Sañjaya
Having seen the assembled army of the Pandavas, Duryodhana (after approaching the Guru, Dronacharaya) spoke the words. 
It is important to note that the word ‘rājā’  means king. In this vignette, Duryodhana, the king of the Kaurava Army, is going to his Guru and preceptor Dronacharya. Despite being the ruler and supreme commander of the formidable Kauravan army, upon seeing the battlement phalanx of the Pandavan Army, Duryodhana has become worried. As such he has ‘approached’ his guru for words of encouragement.

Verse 3
paśyaitāṁ pāṇḍu-putrānām ācārya mahatīṁ camūm
vyūḍhāṁ drupada-putreṇa tava śiṣyeṇa dhīmatā
Declension Breakdown
paśya (Imper. 2nd. Sing √pas) See or Look
etam (Mas. Acc. Sing) this
pāṇḍu-putrānām (GTP: Mas. Sing. Gen) Sons of Pāndu
ācārya (Mas. Sing. Voc) Oh! Teacher/Guru (ācārya)
mahatī (Adj. Fem. Sin. Ac.) Massive/Huge/Mighty
camū (Adj. Fem. Sing. Ac.) Army
vyūḍhāṁ (Mas. Ac. Sing.) arrayed/assembled/forged
drupada-putreṇa (GTP: Mas. Inst. Sing) by the son of Drupada
tava (3rd. Mas. Loc. Sing) Your
śiṣyeṇa (Mas. Inst. Sing) by your student
dhīmatā (Mas. Inst. Sing) with Intellect


Look at the mighty army of the sons of Pandu, oh teacher(!), forged with intellect by the son of Drupada, your student!

This verse illustrates the epitome of Duryodhanā’s arrogance.
In Sanskrit, one uses the imperative case when he/she is a superior who is barking orders to an inferior or lower-class individual. Note carefully that Duryodhana shouts “paśya”- or “look!!”- which is an entirely disrespectful way of gaining the attention of his guru/teacher.
King Drupada is fighting alongside the Pandavas and was earlier insulted by Dronacharya. Consequently, he fervently worshipped God to beget a son who will be Drona’s executioner. Remember, Dronacharya is the guru of all the warriors, both on the Kaurava and Pandava side. As a result, King Drupada’s son was also trained by Dronacharya who was well aware that he was harbinger of his own demise. Dronacharya is also responsible for assembling the army on the Kaurava side. Therefore, when Duryodhana vehemently spits that the great army of the sons of Pandu were forged by “drupada-putra”‘s intellect, he is insinuating that Dronacharya’s student is as good as (or even more) intelligent than Dronacharya himself. Indeed, he goes on to use the word “tava śiṣyeṇa dhīmatā”(your student), to further mock Dronacharya for preparing his own death sentence. Ultimately, Duryodana is deriding Drona for training a man who has ascended the ranks of the Pandu army so quickly that he has levelled himself with the great Dronacharya and is prepared to slaughter him at one fell swoop.

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